Category Archives: General Topics

Spices Substitution

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1 teaspoon (tsp)
½ tsp cinnamon plus ½ tsp ground cloves
Apple Pie Spice
1 teaspoon
½ tsp cinnamon, ½ teaspoon nutmeg plus 1/8 teaspoon cardamon
Arrowroot Starch
1½ teaspoon
 1 tablespoon flour/1½ tbsp cornstarch 
Baking Powder
1 teaspoon
1/3 tablespoon (tbsp) soda and ½ tablespoon cream of tartar
¼ tbsp baking soda and ½ cup sour milk or buttermilk (decrease liquid called for in recipe by ½ cup)
 ¼ tbsp baking soda and ½ tbsp vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make ½ cup (decrease liquid called for in recipe by ½ cup)
Baking Powder-double acting
1 teaspoon
¼ tsp baking soda and 5/8 t cream of  tartar
Baking Soda
There is no substitute for baking soda
 Bay Leaf
1 whole leaf 
¼ teaspoon crushed
 Beau Monde
1 teaspoon
1 teaspoon seasoning or seasoning salt,
½ teaspoon salt or
½ teaspoon Mei Yan seasoning
¼ cup
1 teaspoon brandy extract plus enough water or liquid called for in recipe to make ¼ cup
Broth, beef or chicken
1 cup
1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 envelope powdered broth base dissolve in 1 cup boiling water
1 teaspoon powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 cup
1 cup margarine
1 cup vegetable shortening (for baking)
1 cup oil can be substituted by a similar amount melted butter if the recipe specifics melted butter
1 cup
1 tablespoon lemon juice  or vinegar plus enough regular milk to make 1 cup (allow to stand 5 minutes)
1 cup
1 cup tomato sauce, ¼ cup brown sugar and 2 tablespoons vinegar (for use in cooking
 Chili Sauce
1 cup
1 cup tomato sauce, ¼ cup brown sugar, 2 tablespoons vinegar, ¼ teaspoons cinnamon, dash of ground cloves, and dash of allspice.
Chives, finely  chopped
2 teaspoons
2 tsp green onion tops, finely chopped
Chocolate, semi-sweet
1-2/3 ounces
1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 teaspoons sugar
 Chocolate, unsweetened
1 oz or 1 square
3 tbsp carob powder plus 2 tbsp water
Chocolate chips, semisweet
6 oz package (2/3 cup)
2 squares (2oz) unsweetened chocolate plus 2 tablespoons shortening and ½ cup sugar
¼ cup or 4 tbsp
1 oz (square) unsweetened chocolate (decrease fat called for in recipe by ½ tbsp.) 
Cornmeal, self-rising
1 cup
7/8 cup cornmeal,  1½ tablespoons baking powder, and ½ teaspoon salt
 Corn Syrup
1 cup
7/8 cup sugar and 2 tbsp  water

7/8  cup honey (baked goods will brown more)
1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons All-purpose Flour (AP flour)   
2 tablespoons granular tapioca
1 tablespoon arrowroot
Cream, half & half (12-16% fat)
1 cup
7/8 cup milk and 3 tbsp butter or Margarine (for use in cooking and baking)
 1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted
Cream, Light (18-20% fat
 1 cup
7/8 cup milk and 3 tablespoons butter or margarine (for use in cooking and baking)
1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted
Cream, heavy (36-40% fat)
1 cup
¾ cup milk and 1/3 cup butter margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
Cream, sour
1 cup
7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk
1 cup yogurt
1-1/8 cup powdered nonfat dry milk, ½ cup water, and 1 tablespoon vinegar (mixture will thicken in refrigerator in a few hours)
1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 tablespoon vinegar (allow to stand 5 minutes before using)
1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tablespoon lemon juice, 1 cup smooth cottage cheese blended together.
7/8 cup milk, 1 tablespoon lemon juice, and 2 tbsp butter butter or margarine.
Cream, Whipping
1 cup
Not whipped:
If, you wish to use a commercial pre-whipped cream or whipped cream substitute rather than whip your own cream, use the guideline that 1 cup whipping cream expands to 2 cups when whipped.

For example, if your recipe called for 1  cup of cream to make whipped cream, you could substitute 2 cups of an already whipped product.
1 cup chilled evaporated milk plus ½ tsp lemon juice, whipped until stiff.
Dill plant, fresh or dried  
 3 heads
1 tablespoon dill seed
 Eggs, whole, uncooked 1 large
1 cup
¼ cup egg substitute (example include: Egg Beaters, Second Nature, Scramblers)
3 tablespoons and 1 tsp. thawed frozen egg
2½ sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2½ tablespoons lukewarm water
2 egg yolks and 1 tablespoon water (for cookies)
2 egg yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixtures)
2 whites as a thickening agent
5  large eggs or 6 medium eggs
Egg white, 1 large (2 tbsp) 
2 tablespoons thawed frozen egg white
2 teaspoons sifted, dry egg white powder and 2 tbsp. lukewarm water.
 8 large egg whites
 Egg yolk, 1 yolk (1½ tbsp)
3½ teaspoons thawed frozen egg yolk
2 teaspoons sifted, dry egg
yolk and 2 teaspoons water
Flour, AP (for thickening) 
1 tablespoon
1½ teaspoon cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch.
1 tablespoon quick cooking tapioca
1 tablespoon waxy rice flour
2 tablespoons browned flour
1½ tablespoons whole wheat flour
½ tablespoons whole wheat flour and ½ tablespoon  all-purpose flour
Flour, Cake 1 lb. 1 cup sifted
4¾ cups
1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted AP flour (7/8 cup)
Flour, Self-rising
1 cup
1 cup minus 2 teaspoons AP flour, 1½ tsp. baking powder, and ½ teaspoon salt
Flour, All-Purpose (AP)
1 cup
¾ cup all-purpose flour plus

¼ cup whole wheat flour, in cakes
¾ cup all-purpose flour plus ¼ cup whole wheat flour  
½ cup all[purpose flour plus ½ cup whole wheat flour
volume and a heavier product.
Garlic , 1 clove, small
1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
Garlic salt
1 teaspoon
1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
Gelatin, flavored
3 ounces
1 tablespoon plain gelatin and 2 cups fruit juice  
1/8 tsp
1 tablespoon candied ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar; then finely cut 1 tbsp. raw ginger
Herbs, fresh chopped
1 tbsp
½ teaspoon dried, crushed herbs
1 cup
1¼ cup sugar and ¼ cup water
1 medium
1 to 3 tablespoons juice
1 to 2 teaspoons grated peel
Lemon juice
1 tsp juice
½ teaspoon vinegar
1 medium
1½ to 2 tablespoons juice
Marshmallows, miniature
1 cup
10 large marshmallows
Mayonnaise (for use in Salad and salad dressings
1 cup
½ cup yogurt and ½ cup mayonnaise
1 cup sour cream
1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender
Milk, skim
 1 cup
4 to 5 tablespoons non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1 cup or follow manufacturer’s directions
½ cup evaporated milk and ½ cup water
Milk, whole
1 cup
1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk (add 2 tsp butter or margarine, if) desired.
½ cup evaporated milk and ½ cup water
4 tablespoons whole dry milk and 1 cup water (or follow manufacturer’s directions)
1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)
 Mustard, dry
1 teaspoon
1 tbsp.  prepared mustard
 Onion, fresh
1 small
¼ cup chopped, fresh onion
1-1/3 teaspoon onion salt
1 teaspoon onion powder
1 tablespoon instant minced onions rehydrated
Onion powder
1 tablespoon
1 medium onion, chopped
4 tablespoons fresh chopped onion
Orange peel, dried
1 teaspoon 
2-3 tablespoons grated fresh orange peel (grated peel of 1 medium orange)
1 teaspoon orange extract
Parsley fresh 
 1 tbsp chopped
1 teaspoon dried leafy parsley
2 tbsp dried
1 tbsp. dried red bell pepper, rehydrated
3 tbsp. fresh red bell pepper, chopped
Pumpkin Pie Spice
1 teaspoon
½ teaspoon cinnamon, ¼ tsp ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice, and 1/8 tsp nutmeg
Shortening, melted
1 cup
1 cup cooking oil (only for recipes that call for melted shortening)
Shortening, solid 
1 cup 
1-1/8 cup unsalted butter
¼ cup shortening plus ¾ cup applesauce, pureed prunes (add with liquid ingredients)**
¼ cup shortening plus ¾ cup ricotta cheese (in yeast breads)**
** Reducing fat will give baked goods a denser texture; to correct for this, try increasing the sugar in the recipe and/or beating the egg whites and folding them into the batter. Also try using a softer flour, like pastry or cake flour.
Sour Cream
1 cup
¾ cup sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine blend until smooth
1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp. lemon juice, and 1 cup smooth cottage cheese
1 cup plain yogurt
¾ cup milk, ¾ tsp. lemon juice and 1/3 butter or margarine
Sugar, brown
 1 cup firmly packed 
1 cup granulated sugar
1 cup granulated sugar plus 4 tablespoons molasses, and decrease liquid in the recipe by 3 tablespoons.
Sugar, granulated 
 1 cup
1½ cup corn syrup (decrease liquid by ¼ cup)
1-1/3 cup molasses (decrease liquid by 1/3 cup)
1 cup powdered sugar
1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed
¾ cup honey (decrease liquid by ¼ cup in baked goods add
½ teaspoon soda
Tapioca, granular
1 teaspoon
2 tablespoon pearl tapioca
Tomato juice
1 cup
½ cup tomato sauce plus ½ cup water
Tomato sauce
2 cups
¾ cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water
 Tomato soup
10¾ ounce can
1 cup tomato sauce plus ¼ cup water
 Wine, Red
Same amount of red grape juice or cranberry juice
Wine, white
Same amount of apple juice or white grape juice
Worcestershire Sauce